Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (French: Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (French: le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also Philip I, King of Navarre from 1284 to 1305. He also briefly ruled the County of Champagne in right of his wife, although after his accession as king in 1285 the county remained under the sole governance of his wife until her death in 1305, and then fell to their son Louis until Philip's own death in 1314, after which his son acceded to the French throne and the county was finally united to the crown lands of France. Although Philip was known as handsome, his inflexible personality gained him other epithets, from friend and foe alike. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him, "He is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."

Philip relied on skillful civil servants, such as Guillaume de Nogaret and Enguerrand de Marigny, to govern the kingdom rather than on his nobles. Philip and his advisors were instrumental in the transformation of France from a feudal country to a centralized state. Philip, who sought an uncontested monarchy, compelled his vassals by wars and restricted feudal usages. His ambitions made him highly influential in European affairs. His goal was to place his relatives on foreign thrones. Princes from his house ruled in Naples and Hungary. He tried and failed to make another relative the Holy Roman Emperor. He began the long advance of France eastward by taking control of scattered fiefs.

The most notable conflicts of Philip's reign include a dispute with Edward I of England, who was also his vassal due to the English king owning lands in southwestern France, and a war with the County of Flanders, another vassal, which gained temporary autonomy following Philip’s defeat at the Battle of the Golden Spurs (1302). In 1306, Philip the Fair expelled the Jews from France and, in 1307, he annihilated the order of the Knights Templar. Philip was in debt to both groups and saw them as a "state within the state". To further strengthen the monarchy, he tried to control the French clergy and entered into conflict with Pope Boniface VIII. This conflict led to the transfer of the papal court to the enclave of Avignon in 1309.

His final year saw a scandal amongst the royal family, known as the Tour de Nesle affair, during which the three daughters-in-law of Philip were accused of adultery. His three sons were successively kings of France, Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV. Their deaths without surviving sons of their own would compromise the future of the French royal house, which until then seemed secure, precipitating a succession crisis that would eventually lead to the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453).

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Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos Iunior

Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos Iunior (c. 100 BC – 55 BC) was a son of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos. He was a plebeian tribune in 62 BC, a praetor in 60 BC, a consul in 57 BC and the governor of Hispania Citerior in 56 BC.

Metellus Nepos was a lieutenant of Pompey in the campaign and against the pirates in the Mediterranean in 67 BC and, like his brother Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer, in the Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) against Mithridates VI of Pontus and Tigranes the Great of Armenia. In the war against the pirates he was assigned the command of Lycia and Pamphylia (both on the south coast of modern Turkey). Josephus mentioned that in 65 BC Pompey sent Metellus and Lollius to capture Damascus, in Syria. It is generally assumed that this refers to Metellus Nepos.

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Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (consul 115 BC)

Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (born ca. 163 BC – died 89 BC) was a Roman statesman who served as consul in 115 BC. He was also a long-standing princeps senatus, occupying the post from 115 BC until his death in 89 BC, and as such was widely considered one of the most prestigious and influential politicians of the Late Republic.

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Caecilia Metella Dalmatica

Caecilia Metella (died around 80 BC) was the daughter of Lucius Caecilius Metellus Dalmaticus, Pontifex Maximus in 115 BC.

Caecilia Metella's first marriage was to Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, an aging politician at the peak of his power. Scaurus was a patrician, the princeps senatus (president of the Senate) and a traditional ally of her family. Caecilia bore Scaurus two children: Marcus Aemilius Scaurus and Aemilia Scaura, whom Sulla, her second husband, married to Pompey to forge an alliance with him. Aemilia became the second wife of Pompey. Caecilia Metella had two twins, Faustus and Fausta, and another unnamed son with Sulla.

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Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica

Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Cornelianus Scipio Nasica (c. 100/98 BC – 46 BC), in modern scholarship often referred to as Metellus Scipio, was a Roman consul and military commander in the Late Republic. During the civil war between Julius Caesar and the senatorial faction led by Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"), he remained a staunch optimate. He led troops against Caesar's forces, mainly in the battles of Pharsalus and Thapsus, where he was defeated. He later committed suicide. Ronald Syme called him "the last Scipio of any consequence in Roman history."

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Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius

Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius (c. 130 BC – 63 BC) was a pro-Sullan politician and general who was Roman consul in 80 BC. He was the principal Senatorial commander during the Sertorian War, fighting alongside Pompeius Magnus. He was given the agnomen (nickname) “Pius” because of his constant and unbending attempts to have his father officially recalled from exile.

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Lucius Caecilius Metellus (consul 68 BC)

Lucius Caecilius Metellus was a Roman aristocrat. He was praetor in 71 BC. He succeeded Gaius Verres as governor of Sicily in 70 BC. He died in office as consul in 68 BC. His co-consul was Quintus Marcius Rex.

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Lucius Caecilius Metellus (consul 251 BC)

Lucius Caecilius Metellus (ca. 290 BC – 221 BC) was the son of Lucius Caecilius Metellus Denter. He was Consul in 251 BC and 247 BC, Pontifex Maximus in 243 BC and Dictator in 224 BC.

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A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer. Initially used to delegate power, the term became formalized under Augustus as the officer in command of a legion.

From the times of the Roman Republic, legates had received large shares of the militaries rewards at the end of a successful campaign, which made the position a lucrative one, so it could often attract even distinguished consuls or other high ranking political figures within Roman Politics (e.g., the consul Lucius Julius Caesar volunteered late in the Gallic Wars as a legate under his first cousin once removed, Gaius Julius Caesar).

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Carneades (/kɑːrˈnədz/; Greek: Καρνεάδης, Karneadēs, "of Carnea"; 214/3–129/8 BC) was an Academic skeptic born in Cyrene. By the year 159 BC, he had started to refute all previous dogmatic doctrines, especially Stoicism, and even the Epicureans whom previous skeptics had spared. As head of the Academy, he was one of three philosophers sent to Rome in 155 BC where his lectures on the uncertainty of justice caused consternation among leading politicians. He left no writings and many of his opinions are known only via his successor Clitomachus. He seems to have doubted the ability, not just of the senses but of reason too, in acquiring truth. His skepticism was, however, moderated by the belief that we can, nevertheless, ascertain probabilities of truth, to enable us to live and act correctly.

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Marcus Aemilius Lepidus Porcina

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus Porcina was a member of the important Roman gens Aemilia, consul of the Roman Republic in 137 BC.

In 125 BC Lepidus was an augur (a divinatory priest). In that year he was persecuted by the censors. According to Velleius Paterculus he was persecuted by both censors, Gnaeus Servilius Caepio and Lucius Cassius Longinus Ravilla, for extravagance in the rent of his house. He hired a house for a yearly rent of 6000 asses. According to Valerius Maximus he was persecuted by Lucius Cassius and punished with a fine by a court of the people for building too high a holiday home in the region of Alsium.

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Galba (/ˈsɜːrviəs sʌlˈpɪʃəs ˈɡælbə/; Latin: Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus; 24 December 3 BC – 15 January 69 AD) was Roman emperor for seven months from 68 to 69. The governor of Hispania Tarraconensis at the time of the rebellion of Julius Vindex in Gaul, he seized the throne following Nero's suicide.

Born into a wealthy family, Galba was a capable military officer during the first half of the first century AD. He retired during Nero's reign but was later granted the governorship of Hispania Tarraconensis. Taking advantage of the defeat of Vindex's rebellion and Nero's suicide, he became emperor with the support of the Praetorian Guard.

Galba was the oldest emperor to date when he became Emperor and his physical weakness and general apathy led to his being dominated by favorites. Unable to gain popularity with the people or maintain the support of the Praetorian Guard, Galba was killed by Otho, who rebelled when Galba passed him over as his successor.

He was the first emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors, and the last to be born in the first century BC.

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Scipio Aemilianus

Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Numantinus (185–129 BC), also known as Scipio Aemilianus or Scipio Africanus Minor (Scipio Africanus the Younger), was a politician of the Roman Republic who served as consul twice, in 147 BC and 134 BC.

In 147 BC, he took over the command of the Third Punic War (149–146 BC), besieged, and destroyed Carthage. In 134 BC he took over the Numantine War(143-133 BC), restored the discipline of the Roman army, and defeated Numantia. He was a prominent patron of writers and philosophers

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Publius Rutilius Rufus

Publius Rutilius Rufus (158 BC – after 78 BC) was a Roman statesman, consul, orator and historian of the Rutilia gens, as well as great-uncle of Gaius Julius Caesar.

During his consulship, he reformed the drill system and improved army discipline. As legate to Quintus Mucius Scaevola, he attempted to protect the inhabitants of Asia from extortion by the equites, which led to him being falsely accused of extorting those provincials. The charge was false, but as the juries were chosen from the equestrian order, he was condemned. He was exiled, and went to Smyrna, where he wrote a history of Rome in Greek.

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1784 Essay's on SHAKESPEARE'S Dramatic Characters, King Lear, Richard Third

Prof William Richardson FRSE (1 October 1743 – 3 November 1814) was a Scottish classicist and literary scholar. In 1783 he was a joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

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1899 Works of Leo Tolstoy RUSSIA Childhood Sevastopol Stories 2v Russian English

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (English: /ˈtlstɔɪˈtɒl-/; Russian: Лёв (also Лев) Николаевич Толстой[note 1]tr. Lyov (also Lev) Nikoláyevich TolstóyIPA: [lʲɵf] (also [lʲef]) [nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪtɕ tɐlˈstoj] [note 2]; 9 September [O.S. 28 August] 1828 – 20 November [O.S. 7 November] 1910), usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time.

Born to an aristocratic Russian family in 1828, he is best known for the novels War and Peace (1869) and Anna Karenina (1877), often cited as pinnacles of realist fiction. He first achieved literary acclaim in his twenties with his semi-autobiographical trilogy, Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth (1852–1856), and Sevastopol Sketches (1855), based upon his experiences in the Crimean War. Tolstoy's fiction includes dozens of short stories and several novellas such as The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886), Family Happiness (1859), and Hadji Murad (1912). He also wrote plays and numerous philosophical essays.

In the 1870s Tolstoy experienced a profound moral crisis, followed by what he regarded as an equally profound spiritual awakening, as outlined in his non-fiction work A Confession (1882). His literal interpretation of the ethical teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mount, caused him to become a fervent Christian anarchist and pacifist. Tolstoy's ideas on nonviolent resistance, expressed in such works as The Kingdom of God Is Within You (1894), were to have a profound impact on such pivotal 20th-century figures as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Tolstoy also became a dedicated advocate of Georgism, the economic philosophy of Henry George, which he incorporated into his writing, particularly Resurrection (1899).

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The Equirria (also as Ecurria, from *equicurria, "horse races") were two ancient Roman festivals of chariot racing, or perhaps horseback racing, held in honor of the god Mars, one February 27 and the other March 14.

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In ancient Roman religion, the Quinquatria or Quinquatrus was a festival sacred to the Goddess Minerva, celebrated from the 19-23 of March. The older festivals were of Etruscan origin and were to celebrate the Spring Equinox, the spring rebirth rites of women. According to Varro, it was so-called because it was held on the fifth (quinqu-) day after the Ides, in the same way as the Tusculans called a festival on the sixth day after the Ides Sexatrus or one on the seventh Septimatrus. Both Varro and Festus state that the Quinquatrus was celebrated for only one day, but Ovid says that it was celebrated for five days, hence the name: on the first day no blood was shed, but that on the last four there were contests of gladiators. The first day was the festival proper, and that the following four were an expansion made perhaps in the time of Caesar to gratify the people. The ancient Roman religious calendars assign only one day to the festival.

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Falisci (Ancient Greek: Φαλίσκοι) is the ancient Roman exonym for an Italic people who lived in what is now northern Lazio, on the Etruscan side of the Tiber River. They spoke an Italic language, Faliscan, closely akin to Latin. Originally a sovereign state, politically and socially they supported the Etruscans, joining the Etruscan League. This conviction and affiliation led to their ultimate near destruction and total subjugation by Rome.

Only one instance of their own endonym has been found to date: an inscription from Falerii Novi from the late 2nd century AD refers to the falesce quei in Sardinia sunt, "the Faliscans who are in Sardinia", where falesce is the nominative plural case. An Etruscan inscription calls them the feluskeś. The Latin cannot be far different from the original name. The -sc- suffix is "distinctive of the Italic ethnonyms".

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Ancient Carthage

Carthage (/ˈkɑːrθɪ/; from Latin: Carthago; Punic: 𐤒𐤓𐤕•𐤇𐤃𐤔𐤕‬, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician city-state of Carthage and - during the 7th to 3rd centuries BC, and including its wider sphere of influence - the Carthaginian Empire. The empire extended over much of the coast of North Africaas well as encompassing substantial parts of coastal Iberia and the islands of the western Mediterranean Sea.

Phoenicians founded Carthage in 814 BC. Initially a dependency of the Phoenician state of Tyre, Carthage gained independence around 650 BC and established its political hegemony over other Phoenician settlements throughout the western Mediterranean, this lasting until the end of the 3rd century BC. At the height of the city's prominence it served as a major hub of trade, with trading stations extending throughout the region.

For much of its history, Carthage was on hostile terms with the Greeks in Sicily and with the Roman Republic; tensions led to a series of armed conflicts known as the Greco-Punic Wars (c. 600–265 BC) and the Punic Wars (264–146 BC) respectively. The city also had to deal with potentially hostile Berbers, the indigenous inhabitants of the area where Carthage was built. In 146 BC, after the third and final Punic War, Roman forces destroyed Carthage, then redesigned and occupied the site of the city. Nearly all of the other Phoenician city-states and former Carthaginian dependencies subsequently fell into Roman hands.

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